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transglutaminase (TG or TGase)
Transglutaminase (TGase) is a kind of food additives for improvement of proteomic food, and is widely distributed in liver or blood of mammal, muscle of fishes, plants and microorganisms. The enzyme plays a function as a catalyst that promotes the reaction of cross-linking between proteins along with hydrolyzing glutamine in proteins thereby improving functional characteristics of protein food such as elasticity, mouth feel, flavor, texture, binding force and so on.
Characteristics of Transglutaminase
1. Good PH Stability
Although the optimum PH of crude TGase is 6.0, it also functions with high activity in the wide range of PH 5.0 to 8.0. On account of this wide PH range, a variety of applications can be effective in various food processes, regardless of food type.
2. High Thermal Stability
The optimum temperature of TGase is about 50℃. It also has high activity in the range of 45~55℃. TGase keeps stable when the temperature is 40℃ and becomes weaker when exceeded 50℃ and inactive temperature up to 75℃.
3. Wide Range of Temperature
TGase can be functional in a wide range of temperature between 5~40℃ and be chosen as different technics conditions.
4. Strong Binding Force
The covalent bond catalyzed by TGase is hard to rupture under the conditions of non-enzymic reactions. Once the minced meat which was treated by TGase is shaped, the shape is kept, even though it is frozen or sliced or cooked.
5. Safe Edibility
TGase is widely distributed in mammal tissues and its new-type products are very safe to human bodies, therefore, they are very popular in our daily life.
Applications of Transglutaminase in Food Processing
1. For Meat＆Poultry Products: TGase can integrate the minced meat to make hams and meat balls. It can increase the use ratio of meat and moreover improve the appearance, texture, flavor and mouth feel.
2. For Fish Products: TGase is good for connecting with fish proteins and can be used to strengthen the product gel to get high quality product. Used in shrimp meat processing TGase can improve the appearance and mouth feel.
3. For Dairy Industry: Casein is the good substrate of TGase. TGase can improve evidently the texture and mouth feel in yoghourt processing and make high quality yoghourt.